Thousands of Malians are still living in Mbera camp in southeast Mauritania, following the conflict in 2013 which forced them to flee across the border. Despite the peace process, violent attacks by armed groups and bandits have dissuaded them from returning home. The latest arrival at the end of 2016 has put additional pressure on the camp’s infrastructure. According to the UNHCR, the United Nations refugee agency, 46,877 people were living in Mbera camp in December 2016. MSF provided basic and emergency healthcare, as well as gynaecological and obstetric services, for the refugees in the camp and the host communities in nearby Bassikounou and Fassala. In 2016, the majority of the surgical interventions performed by MSF teams were caesarean sections, and visceral and orthopaedic procedures.