Ebola information - 2000

Marburg disease has been recognized in five occasions:
  • In 1967, in Germany and Yugoslavia, 31 humans (7 fatalties) were infected following exposure to Africa gree monkeys from Uganda.
  • In 1975, the fatal index case of three diagnosed in South Africa had originated in Zimbabwe.
  • In 1980, there were two confirmed cases in Kenya, one fatal.
  • In 1982, one occurred in Zimbabwe.
  • In 1987, a fatal case occurred in Kenya. Ebola disease was first recognised in 1976 in the western equatorial province of the Sudan and 500 miles away in Zaire. More than 600 cases were idenitified in rural hospitals and villages. The case-fatality rate for these near simultaneos outbreaks was about 70%. A second outbreak occurred in the same area of the Sudan in 1979. A distinct strain was recoevered from one person and from chimpanzees in the Ivory Coast in 1994. A major Ebola outbreak in 1995 was centered around Kitwit, Zaire. Reservoir Unknown despite extensive studies Mode of transmission Person to person transmission occurs by direct contact with infected blood, secretions, organs or seman. Nosocomial infections have been frequent; vcirtually all Ebola (Zaire) patients who acquired infection from contaminated syringes and needles died. Transmission through semen has occurred seven weeks after clinical recovery. Incubation Period Three to nine days with Marburg and 2-21 days with Ebola virus disease. Period of communicability As long as the blood and secretions contain the virus. Up to 30% of primary caregivers in Sudan were infected while most other household contacts remain uninfected. Ebola virus was isoalted from the seminal fluid on the 61st, but not on the 76th, day after onset of illness in a laboratory-acquired case. Susceptibility and resistance All ages are susceptible Methods of control Institute immediate, strict barrier isolation in a hospital room away from traffic patterns. Respiratory protection is desirable. Restriction of sexual intercourse for three months or until semen can be shown to be free of virus Concurrent disinfection: Patient's excreta, sputum, blood and all objects with which the patients has had contact, including laboratory equipment used to carry out tests on blood, should be disinfected... Laboratory tests should be carried out in high-containment facilities. If there is no such facility, tests should be kept to a minimum and specimans handled by experienced technicians using all available precautions, such as gloves and hoods.