Ebola information - 2000
16 October 2000
Marburg disease has been recognized in five occasions:
In 1967, in Germany and Yugoslavia, 31 humans (7 fatalties) were
infected following exposure to Africa gree monkeys from Uganda.
In 1975, the fatal index case of three diagnosed in South Africa had
originated in Zimbabwe.
In 1980, there were two confirmed cases in Kenya, one fatal.
In 1982, one occurred in Zimbabwe.
In 1987, a fatal case occurred in Kenya.
Ebola disease was first recognised in 1976 in the western equatorial
province of the Sudan and 500 miles away in Zaire. More than 600 cases
were idenitified in rural hospitals and villages. The case-fatality
rate for these near simultaneos outbreaks was about 70%.
A second outbreak occurred in the same area of the Sudan in 1979. A
distinct strain was recoevered from one person and from chimpanzees in
the Ivory Coast in 1994. A major Ebola outbreak in 1995 was centered
around Kitwit, Zaire.
Unknown despite extensive studies
Mode of transmission
Person to person transmission occurs by direct contact with infected
blood, secretions, organs or seman. Nosocomial infections have been
frequent; vcirtually all Ebola (Zaire) patients who acquired infection
from contaminated syringes and needles died. Transmission through
semen has occurred seven weeks after clinical recovery.
Three to nine days with Marburg and 2-21 days with Ebola virus
Period of communicability
As long as the blood and secretions contain the virus. Up to 30% of
primary caregivers in Sudan were infected while most other household
contacts remain uninfected. Ebola virus was isoalted from the seminal
fluid on the 61st, but not on the 76th, day after onset of illness in
a laboratory-acquired case.
Susceptibility and resistance
All ages are susceptible
Methods of control
Institute immediate, strict barrier isolation in a hospital room away
from traffic patterns. Respiratory protection is desirable.
Restriction of sexual intercourse for three months or until semen can
be shown to be free of virus
Concurrent disinfection: Patient's excreta, sputum, blood and all
objects with which the patients has had contact, including laboratory
equipment used to carry out tests on blood, should be disinfected...
Laboratory tests should be carried out in high-containment facilities.
If there is no such facility, tests should be kept to a minimum and
specimans handled by experienced technicians using all available
precautions, such as gloves and hoods.