1/3 of Global Population infected
5-10% of infected persons will develop active TB during their life
Total 8 million new cases in 1998
Infectious new cases 3.5 million in 1998 Death 2 million in 1998
Total 3.6 million cases during 1998 (45% of estimated cases)
Infectious cases 1.4 million during 1998 (40% of estimated cases)
Leading cause of death due to a single infectious agent
Almost 30 million of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost in
Each year 8 million develop TB and 2-3 million die 95% cases and 98%
deaths in poorest countries
Biggest killer of HIV positive people (1/3 of all AIDS deaths) 75%
deaths among most productive age group (15-45 years)
There is an urgent need for practical and affordable treatments for
tuberculosis. TB kills 2 million people each year. Almost all these
deaths occur in the developing world.
However, there is almost no research and development for new
medicines. Despite a wealth of knowledge on TB, the last novel
medicine was developed over 30 years ago and the last vaccine was
developed in 1923.
Médecins Sans Frontières calls on governments to ensure there is
greater research and development of medicines for infectious diseases
"Drug companies have shifted their agenda towards diseases that affect
people in rich countries" said Dr James Orbinski, president of MSF's
International Council. "Even though two million people die every year
from TB, it is almost totally ignored by the pharmaceutical industry".
Shorter and simpler TB treatments are needed. The most effective
existing treatment - DOTS - has significant labour costs for
governments and wage and social costs for patients that make it
impractical in most settings.
"One of the reasons that so many people are dying of TB is that old
treatments are too complex and need to be taken for a minimum of six
months," explained Dr Orbinski.
In addition, TB is becoming resistant to many of the standard drugs.
Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR TB) costs between $US 5,000 and 8,000 to
treat. "MDR TB drugs must be made available at an affordable price.
For the majority of patients, MDR TB is a death sentence," said Dr
Orbinski. (In conjunction with WHO, MSF is negotiating an agreement
with drug manufacturers to dramatically decrease the price of MDR TB
drugs to around $US 1,500 per patient.)
According to Dr Orbinski: "Governments have a political responsibility
to promote, protect and ensure peoples' right to health care. In the
face of a major public health emergency like TB, governments must
either intervene in the market or establish public capacity for new
"To date, government has failed, the pharmaceutical industry has
failed, and market forces alone will fail to respond to TB. TB is a
social and political problem and a failure to act today will have
incalculable consequences for generations to come around the world."
Dr James Orbinski will speak at the WHO Ministerial Conference on TB
and Sustainable Development in Amsterdam, 24 March 2000.
Currently supporting more than 20 TB programmes world-wide, Médecins
Sans Frontières is campaigning for access to essential medicines.