South Sudan: Water remains the biggest concern
Vanessa Cramond is the medical coordinator of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Jamam,
“We started to receive reports about a large movement of people arriving from Blue Nile state into
From what we understand, some of this new refugee population had been planning their move for some days, while others seemed like they left very quickly, which affected how prepared they were, what they brought, and their ability to look after themselves during their journey. You can see that some people don’t have blankets, they don’t have cooking equipment, basic items to survive. Some of them were really, really struggling to look after themselves. In response, we did an emergency distribution to 4,000 households [approximately 20,000 people] of non-food items, emergency relief items, such as jerry cans, blankets, and plastic sheeting, which helps protect people from the elements, especially the many young children and pregnant women.
'Water remains the biggest concern'
Water has been and remains the biggest concern. There is not enough safe water for people to wash their hands and manage their own family’s hygiene, the conditions are hard to imagine, many families sharing small makeshift shelters. So much close contact can become a health risk, but they have had no choice. People have been drinking from the hafirs [natural reservoirs], too, and we’re seeing a worrying percentage of the population here with diarrhoea; about 40 per cent of all medical consultations have been related to diarrhoea.
It’s about 50 to 60 kilometres from the border to Jamam, a very long way when you’re traveling by foot and without water. At [the informal transit point at] kilometre 43, we tried to make the best of a very difficult situation, but water ran out quickly. The population was forced to walk to kilometre 18 (km18) in search for more available water and MSF quickly set up treated water stations and oral rehydration points along the road. But tragically, every day our teams saw people with acute dehydration as they walked and some people, despite our attempts to revive them, passed away, simply because they were too weak to survive. At km18, we set up a mobile clinic and provided clean water and did the emergency distribution of relief items. But again, there wasn’t enough water there to last more than a few weeks. It was clear to everyone they had to continue their journey to seek more sustainable refuge.
Moving to a new camp
UNHCR and other agencies agreed to set up a new camp in Batil, and some of this km18 population has started to be moved there. It’s not an easy journey because of the rain and the roads, but, bit by bit, as the weather allowed, the population has been moved and we’ve tried to support them by checking that people boarding the buses and the trucks were fit to travel. We wanted to address any urgent medical needs that we could, refer people who didn’t seem well enough to endure that journey or survive the conditions in Batil to the nearest MSF hospital. So we’ve tried to be supportive in terms of addressing diarrhoea, respiratory infections and severe acute malnutrition. In the last week, we’ve seen an increase in malaria, too, and a significant number of eye infections across the whole population, children as well as adults. It’s a real sign that the population is struggling to manage their hygiene; they simply do not have the water needed to stay clean and wash their clothing and blankets. And now with the rain—you can imagine for a malnourished child, hyperthermia is a real risk, their small bodies unable to regulate their body temperature. Their blankets and clothes get wet, they get cold. For those children who are already vulnerable, there is a huge illness risk and for some it will lead to death.
Having been on the move already for a number of weeks, some for months, the closer this community gets to the end—to shelter, consistent food distribution and the prospect of a safe new home—the more they want to get there. So it gets somewhat chaotic as trucks get loaded and unloaded, and we were unable to medically check the people boarding the vehicles at km18 for a few days because of the sheer volume of people being moved. When they arrived in Jamam, they were just as eager to get off the truck as they had been to get on them. Our MSF teams tried to identify children and adults who were dehydrated, malnourished, unwell, as best as we could, so that we could provide emergency care. You really only have a few seconds to see if each person needs assistance before they move on.
Facing tough decisions
We had some really serious cases coming off nearly every truck, children with high fever, severely dehydrated people, severely malnourished, drowsy and hypoglacemic, people who urgently needed medical support. Over the last four weeks, we have admitted over one hundred people here to the hospital for dehydration, infection or severe malnutrition. We’ve had women getting off buses already in labour, people with malaria, lots of people who need hospital-level, 24-hour care, to simply secure their survival.
People have to make very tough decisions. If a child is really sick, for example, mothers have to find a way to split their care between one child versus the others they may have. It’s an unbearable reality. It’s especially difficult when they’ve just arrived in a new and unfamiliar place, don’t know where anything is or what the process will be next, and are trying to scramble to find the few possessions they have. Some of these families have already split up, and the mother is on her own. Within this culture, it’s not always easy for women to make decisions in these circumstances. Some evenings, I’ve talked to women about bringing their sick child to the hospital and they say they have to wait until their husband arrives. In those cases, we do what we can to provide immediate health care on the spot until someone can make that decision to bring the child to the hospital.
Developing a relationship
We’ve also just met this community, so we have to be patient and try to understand their needs. What we might see as a priority is not necessarily the same for the family; that’s part of this new relationship we’re trying to develop.
During one particularly crazy morning helping the people board the buses, I encountered three women who were queuing for the bus to move from km18 to the Batil camp. I discovered buried beneath their layers of colourful fabric, three very small babies in their arms, all of them very small and under weight. Two were doing quite well considering they had been born on the journey from their homes in
For acute malnutrition, there are two phases of the response. One is community-based care using ready-to-use therapeutic food, a nutrient-rich paste that children have to eat every day. Those kids are sick and vulnerable, but medically doing okay. Then we have children who are severely malnourished and have a complication such as malaria, diarrhoea, chest infections, or malnutrition so profound that they’ve lost appetite and ability to eat. Those kids generally need hospitalisation where we really control the feeding and recovery process and carefully treat any infections, it’s a delicate balance. It can take anywhere from weeks to sometimes months to turn around a child who is severely malnourished. But here, they’re in the right place. Over the last four weeks, we’ve admitted over 300 children from this particular group of new arrivals into the community based nutrition programme and we’ve admitted more than 30 children into the inpatient program for 24-hour care. I can’t say that everyone is going to make it, some are simply too sick and too vulnerable. Life will remain precarious, but I know there will be lots and lots of success stories in there as well.
Higher levels of malaria
Hopefully, over the next six weeks some of the most present morbidities, such as diarrhoea, chest infections and the skin and eye infections, will start to dissipate when people get more consistent access to food, clean water, shelter and healthcare. The stagnant water all around Jamam is a risk; I know that in Batil and Doro camps, MSF teams are already seeing higher levels of malaria, which can be seriously detrimental to pregnant women and young children. And, of course, there’s the risk for cholera, which is endemic in
We’ve had to scale up rapidly and it has not been easy. The geography of this place is not to be taken lightly. I think we’ve done a great job in scaling up quickly and providing care for the most immediate health issues and dealing with the emergent needs the best we can. These people have already had such a challenging journey, and it’s not over. There are still difficult months ahead for them. But, they’re incredibly vibrant, they’re still smiling and saying hello and sharing their tea! I hope that we can continue to work alongside this community, learn more about them as they learn about us, and together we’ll hope to see an improving situation for them in the future.”
MSF has been providing aid to refugees in Upper